Best viewed in 1024x768 pixels

R E F E R E N C E S 

Comet Assay

FISH with Comet

Genetic Toxicology

DNA Crosslinks

Alkali Labile Sites  

DNA Repair



Human Biomonitoring

Environmental Biomonitoring

Hypoxia Assessment  

Sperm, Blood

Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy

Comet - Bacteria

Comet - Drosophila

Comet - Reviews

Comet Assay Abstract Search Software (C)- A software that keeps you updated with the comet assay literature - for details contact




Comet Assay       

O. Ostling and K. J. Johanson  - Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123: 291-298 (1984).

N. P. Singh, M. T. McCoy, R. R. Tice, E. L. Schneider - A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp. Cell Res. 175: 184-191 (1988).

P. L. Olive - Cell Proliferation as a requirement for development of the contact effect in the Chinese Hamster V79 spheroids. Radiation Research 117: 79-92 (1989).

FISH with Comet     

S. J. Santos, N. P. Singh, A. T. Natarajan - Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization with Comets. Experimental Cell Research 232, 407–411 (1997)  

D. Anderson, T. W. Yu and M.A. Browne - The use of the same image analysis system to detect genetic damage in human lymphocytes treated with doxorubicin in the Comet and fluoresence in situ hybridisation (FISH) assays. Mutation Res 390(1-2): 69-77 (1997)

D. J. McKenna, Nor F. Rajab, S. R. McKeown, G. McKerr and V. J. McKelvey-Martin - Use of the Comet-FISH Assay to Demonstrate Repair of the TP53Gene Region in Two Human Bladder Carcinoma Cell Lines. Radiation Research 159: 49-56 (2003).

Genetic Toxicology

BL Pool-Zobel, C Guigas, R Klein, C Neudecker, HW Renner, P. Schmezer  - Assessment of genotoxic effects by lindane. Food Chem Toxicol 31(4): 271-83 (1993)

D. Anderson, A. Dhawan, TW Yu, M. J. Plewa - An investigation of bone marrow and testicular cells in vivo using the comet assay. Mutation Res 370: 159-74 (1996)

N. P. Singh - Sodium ascorbate induces DNA single-strand breaks in human cells in vitro. Mutation Res 375:195–203 (1997)  

YF Sasaki, K Sekihashi, F Izumiyama, E Nishidate, A Saga, K Ishida, S Tsuda. -The comet assay with multiple mouse organs: comparison of comet assay results and carcinogenicity with 208 chemicals selected from the IARC monographs and U.S. NTP Carcinogenicity Database. Crit Rev Toxicol 30(6):629-799 (2000)

Kauser M Ansari, L.K.S. Chauhan, Alok Dhawan, S.K. Khanna, Mukul Das-Unequivocal evidence of genotoxicity of argemone oil in mouse. International Journal of Cancer 112: 890-895 (2004). 

            Kausar M.  Ansari, Alok Dhawan Subhash K. Khanna, Mukul Das - In vivo DNA damaging potential of sanguinarine alkaloid, isolated from argemone oil, using alkaline comet assay. Food and Chemical Toxicology 43(1):147-53 (2005).

DNA Crosslinks  

O. Merk, G. Speit - Detection of crosslinks with the comet assay in relationship to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. Environ Mol Mutagen 33(2): 167-72 (1999)

N. P. Singh - Microgels for estimation of DNA strand breaks, DNA protein crosslinks and apoptosis. Mutation Res 455: 111–127 (2000)

Alkali Labile Sites

P. Jaloszynski, M. Kujawski, M. Wasowicz, R. Szulc, K. Szyfter  - Genotoxicity of inhalation anesthetics halothane and isoflurane in human lymphocytes studied in vitro using the comet assay. Mutation Res 439(2):199-206 (1999)

DNA Repair

A. R. Collins, M. Dusinska, C. M. Gedik, R. Stetina - Oxidative damage to DNA: do we have a reliable biomarker? Environ Health Perspect 104 Suppl 3:465-9 (1996)

A. R. Collins, M. Dusinska, E. Horvathova, E. Munro, M. Savio, R. Stetina - Inter-individual differences in repair of DNA base oxidation, measured in vitro with the comet assay. Mutagenesis 16(4):297-301 (2001)

T. Yamauchi, Y. Kawai, T. Ueda - Inhibition of Nucleotide Excision Repair by Fludarabine in Normal Lymphocytes in vitro, Measured by the Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) Assay. Jpn J Cancer Res 93(5):567-73 (2002)


N. Avishai, C. Rabinowitz, E. Moiseeva, B. Rinkevich - Genotoxicity of the Kishon River, Israel: the application of an in vitro cellular assay. Mutation Res 518(1): 21-37 (2002)  


S. Knasmuller, H. Steinkellner, A. M. Hirschl, S. Rabot, E. C. Nobis, F. Kassie - Impact of bacteria in dairy products and of the intestinal microflora on the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of heterocyclic aromatic amines. Mutation Res 480-481:129-38 (2001)

L. Giovannelli, C. Saieva, G. Masala, G. Testa, S. Salvini, V. Pitozzi, E. Riboli, P. Dolara, D. Palli - Nutritional and lifestyle determinants of DNA oxidative damage: a study in a Mediterranean population. Carcinogenesis; 23(9):1483-9 (2002)

Human Biomonitoring

A. Hartmann, U. Plappert, K. Raddatz, M.Grunert –Fuchs, G. Speit - Does physical activity induce DNA damage? Mutagenesis 9: 269-272 (1994)

C. Betti, T. Davini, L. Giannessi, N. Loprieno, R. Barale - Comparative studies by comet test and SCE analysis in human lymphocytes from 200 healthy subjects. Mutation Res 343(4): 201-7 (1995)

M. Betancourt, R. Ortiz, C. Gonzalez, P. Perez, L. Cortes, L. Rodriguez, L. Villasenor - Assessment of DNA damage in leukocytes from infected and malnourished children by single cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay. Mutation Res 331: 65-77 (1995)

B. Binkova, J. Lewtas, I. Miskova, P. Rossner, M. Cerna, G. Mrackova, K. Peterkova, J. Mumford, S. Meyer, R. Sram - Biomarker studies in Northern Bohemia. Environ Health Prepect 104 (suppl. 3): 591-597 (1996)

E. Rojas, M. Valverde, M. Sordo, P.O. Wegman - DNA damage in exfoliated buccal cells of smokers assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Mutation Res 370: 115-120 (1996)

S.M. Piperakis, E.E. Visvardis, M. Sagnou, A.M. Tassiou - Effects of smoking and aging on oxidative DNA damage of human lymphocytes. Carcinogenesis 19: 695-698 (1998)

S. M. Piperakis, E. Petrakou, S. Tsilimigaki - Effects of air pollution and smoking on DNA damage of human lymphocytes. Environ Mol Mutagen 36: 243-249 (2000)

R. J. Sram, B. Binkova - Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens 1997-1999. Environ Health Prepect 108 (suppl. 1): 57-70 (2000)

F. Kassie, W. Parzefall, S. Knasmuller - Single cell gel electrophoresis assay: a new technique for human biomonitoring studies. Mutation Res 463(1):13-31 (2000)

A. Dhawan, N. Mathur, P. K. Seth - The effect of smoking and eating habits on DNA damage in Indian population as measured in the Comet assay. Mutation Res 474(1-2):121-8 (2001)

M. Bajpayee, A. Dhawan, D. Parmar, A. K. Pandey, N. Mathur, P. K. Seth - Gender-related differences in basal DNA damage in lymphocytes of a healthy Indian population using the alkaline Comet assay. Mutation Res 520(1-2): 83-91 (2002)

V. Garaj-Vrhovac, N. Kopjar, D. Razem, B. Vekic, S. Miljanic, M. Ranogajec-Komor - Application of the alkaline comet assay in biodosimetry: assessment of in vivo DNA damage in human peripheral leukocytes after a gamma radiation incident. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 98(4): 407-16 (2002)

Mahima Bajpayee, Alok Kumar Pandey, Devendra Parmar, Neeraj Mathur, Prahlad K. Seth, Alok Dhawan
Comet assay responses in human lymphocytes are not influenced by the menstrual cycle: a study in healthy Indian females. Mutation Research 565(2):163-172 (2005).

Alok K. Pandey, Mahima Bajpayee, Devendra Parmar, Subodh K. Rastogi, Neeraj Mathur, Prahlad K. Seth and Alok Dhawan DNA damage in lymphocytes of rural Indian women exposed to biomass fuels as assessed by the comet assay. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 45 (5) 435-441(2005).

Environmental Biomonitoring

J. Salagovic, J. Gilles, L. Verschaeve, I. Kalina. - The comet assay for the detection of genotoxic damage in the earthworms: apromising tool for assessing the biological hazards of polluted sites Folia Biol (Praha) 42(1-2): 17-21 (1996)

K. Belpaeme, K. Cooreman, M. Kirsch-Volders - Development and validation of the in vivo alkaline comet assay for detecting genomic damage in marine flatfish. Mutation Res 415(3):167-84 (1998)

T. Gichner - Differential genotoxicity of ethyl methanesulphonate, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and maleic hydrazide in tobacco seedlings based on data of the Comet assay and two recombination assays. Mutation Res 538: 171-179 (2003)  

T. Gichner, Z. Mühlfeldová - Induced DNA damaged measured by the Comet assay in 10 weed species. Biologia Plantarum 43: 509-516 (2002)

T. Gichner, M. J. Plewa - Induction of somatic DNA damage as measured by single cell gel electrophoresis and point mutation in leaves of tobacco plants. Mutation Res 401: 143-153 (1998)

Hypoxia Assessment  

P. L. Olive - Use of the comet assay to detect hypoxic cells in murine tumours and normal tissues exposed to bioreductive drugs. Acta Oncol 34(3):301-5 (1995)

Sperm, Blood

N. P. Singh, D. B. Danner, R. R. Tice, M. T. McCoy, G. D. Collins, E. L. Schneider - Abundant alkali-sensitive sites in DNA of human and mouse sperm. Experimental Cell Research 184: 461-470 (1989)

D. Anderson, A. Dhawan, TW Yu, M. J. Plewa - An investigation of bone marrow and testicular cells in vivo using the comet assay. Mutation Res 370: 159-74 (1996)

N. P. Singh, R. E. Stephens - X-ray induced DNA double-strand breaks in human sperm. Mutagenesis 13: 75-79 (1998)

D. Anderson, M. M. Dobrzynska, N. Basaran, A. Basaran, T. W. Yu - Flavonoids modulate comet assay responses to food mutagens in human lymphocytes and sperm. Mutation Res 402(1-2):269-77 (1998)

R. J. Sram, B. Binkova, P. Rossner, J. Rubes, J. Topinka, J. Dejmek - Adverse reproductive outcomes from exposure to environmental mutagens. Mutation Res 428(1-2): 203-15 (1999)

N. P. Singh, C. H. Muller, R. E. Berger - Effects of age on DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis in human sperm. Fertility and Sterility 80 (6): 1420-1430 (2003)

Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy

H. Vaghef, P. Nygren, C. Edling, J. Bergh, B. Hellman - Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis and human biomonitoring for genotoxicity: a pilot study on breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide. Mutation Res 395(2-3): 127-38 (1997)

C. S. Djuzenova, D. Schindler, H. Stopper, H. Hoehn, M. Flentje, U. Oppitz - Identification of ataxia telangiectasia heterozygotes, a cancer-prone population, using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Lab Invest 79(6): 699-705 (1999)

J. Spronck, J. Kirkland - Niacin deficiency increases spontaneous and etoposide-induced chromosomal instability in rat bone marrow cells in vivo. Mutation Res 508(1-2): 83 (2002)

N. Kopjar, V. Garaj-Vrhovac, I. Milas - Assessment of chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of cancer patients using the alkaline comet assay. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 22(1): 13-30 (2002)

C. Gonzalez, O. Najera, E. Cortes, G. Toledo, L. Lopez, M. Betancourt, R. Ortiz - Susceptibility to DNA damage induced by antibiotics in lymphocytes from malnourished children. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 22(2):147-58 (2002)

Comet - Bacteria

N. P. Singh, E. Ralph, Stephens, Himani Singh, Henry Lai - Visual quantification of DNA double-strand breaks in bacteria. Mutation Res 429: 159–168  (1999)

Comet - Drosophila

Indranil Mukhopadhyay, D. Kar Chowdhuri, Mahima Bajpayee, Alok Dhawan - Evaluation of in vivo genotoxicity of cypermethrin in Drosophila melanogaster using alkaline Comet assay. Mutagenesis 19(2): 85-90 (2004).

Hifzur R. Siddique, D. Kar Chowdhuri, D.K. Saxena and Alok Dhawan - Validation of Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model for genotoxicity assessment using modified alkaline Comet assay. Mutagenesis 20 (4) 285-290 (2005).


Hifzur R. Siddique, Subash C. Gupta, Alok Dhawan, Ramesh C. Murthy, Daya K. Saxena and D. Kar Chowdhuri - Genotoxicity of industrial solid waste leachates in Drosophila melanogaster using a modified alkaline comet assay. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 46: 189-197 (2005).


Comet- Reviews

Peter Møller - Assessment of reference values for DNA damage detected by the comet assay in human blood cell DNA. Mutation Research 612: 84–104 (2006).